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    THE HISTORY OF KIENANDO KUNGFU                          

  Kienando is originated from Traditional Vietnamese Martial arts combined with ancient Shaolin Kung Fu. All techniques have been analyzed, modified and modernized to cope with the world progress in defense and offense system. More or less, some fascinating moves of Kickboxing, Karate, Jujutsu, Western Martial Arts, Aikido, Kenpo, Judo, Naginata, and several other martial arts styles have seemingly made significant contributions to the present Kienando.

         In parallel with the highly developed martial arts all over the world, during the last several centuries, Vietnamese martial arts have also been glowing. To protect and enrich national martial arts are the purpose.

        Kienando has its own dynamic forms and techniques. Plenty of foot works and hand works such as kicks, punches, throws, elbows, fists, sweeps, weapons has been carefully composed and improved to better the training.

        Furthermore, KIENANDO Kung Fu is also a study of philosophy and development of skill. It focused on both external and internal power such as modernized fighting arts to become more effective, pressure points and Chikung, a very good method of breathing and mediation.

         Vietnam has a few ancient martial arts officially acknowledged worldwide: Binh Dinh, Vovinam, Volamdao, Thieu Lam Kien An… The present Grand Master of Thieu Lam Kien An is Nguyen Lam, who is also the founder of KIENANDO. Grand Master Nguyen Lam is from Kien An province. In Vietnam, there are two famous martial arts regions: Binh Dinh is in the Central and Kien An is in the North. An Lao and Kien Thuy are two reputable districts in Kien An. An Lao District has been recognized as the older brother of Kien Thuy in martial arts techniques.Two outstanding villages in An Lao are Lang Son and Xuan Son

                 In 1945, when Grand Master Nguyen Lam was still a young boy, his parents taught him the Kien An martial art styles with some special techniques only instructed to selected members of the family. During this period, he ventured to Do Son and fortunately met with great Grand Master Thai Quan, a well-known ShaoLin teacher, to learn more about kung fu and distinguished features. In 1950, the famous Grand Master Hong Sac Kim accepted him as a student (currently Grand Maser Hong Sac Kim is over ninety years old and still teaching kung fu in France).

                  In 1954, Grand Master Nguyen Lam and his family migrated to the South and lived in Saigon. In an effort to further advance martial arts training, he got in touch with Grand Masters Ho Cam Ngac and Pham Loi (who were outstanding instructors of Judo and Karate in South Vietnam in 1950s, 1960 and early 1970s). Together, they exchanged knowledge of defense and offense methods.

                  The first Vietnamese who graduated from Judo Kodokan University was Professor Ho Cam Ngac. After studying the martial arts in Tokyo, Japan for five years, he returned to his homeland in 1948 to promote the Japanese martial arts to the Vietnamese.

                   Also distinguished was Professor Pham Loi who returned to Vietnam from France in 1955 with extensive knowledge of Judo techniques. The first Professors of Judo who contributed generously to create the Vietnamese Judo Federation in 1956 were Thai Thuc Thuan, Dang Thong Tri, Phan Van Quan, Vuong Quang Ba, and Venerable Thich Tam Giac. Professor Dang Thong Phong, a younger brother of Professor Dang Thong Tri, established the Vietnamese Aikido Federation in 1964.

                   In 1972, after receiving special training from Malaysia and the United States, Grand Master Nguyen Lam went back to Vietnam to open a martial arts school. There were many foreign students and they found Thieu Lam Kien An were difficult to pronounce, therefore, they called “Shaolin.” At the time, the term “kungfu” was very popular, Grand Master Nguyen Lam changed it to Kienan Kungfu. The international name of Kienan Kungfu today is KIENANDO.  


The History of Aikido

Aikido's founder, Morihei Ueshiba, was born in Japan on December 14, 1883. As a boy, he often saw local thugs beat up his father for political reasons. He set out to make himself strong so that he could take revenge. He devoted himself to hard physical conditioning and eventually to the practice of martial arts, receiving certificates of mastery in several styles of jujitsu, fencing, and spear fighting. In spite of his impressive physical and martial capabilities, however, he felt very dissatisfied. He began delving into religions in hopes of finding a deeper significance to life, all the while continuing to pursue his studies of budo, or the martial arts. By combining his martial training with his religious and political ideologies, he created the modern martial art of aikido. Ueshiba decided on the name "aikido" in 1942 (before that he called his martial art "aikibudo"and "aikinomichi").

On the technical side, aikido is rooted in several styles of jujitsu (from which modern judo is also derived), in particular daitoryu-(aiki)jujitsu, as well as sword and spear fighting arts. Oversimplifying somewhat, we may say that aikido takes the joint locks and throws from jujitsu and combines them with the body movements of sword and spear fighting. However, we must also realize that many aikido techniques are the result of Master Ueshiba's own innovation.

On the religious side, Ueshiba was a devotee of one of Japan's so-called "new religions," Omotokyo. Omotokyo was (and is) part neo-Shintoism, and part socio-political idealism. One goal of Omotokyo has been the unification of all humanity in a single "heavenly kingdom on earth" where all religions would be united under the banner of Omotokyo. It is impossible sufficiently to understand many of O-sensei's writings and sayings without keeping the influence of Omotokyo firmly in mind.

Despite what many people think or claim, there is no unified philosophy of aikido. What there is, instead, is a disorganized and only partially coherent collection of religious, ethical, and metaphysical beliefs which are only more or less shared by aikidoka, and which are either transmitted by word of mouth or found in scattered publications about aikido.

Some examples: "Aikido is not a way to fight with or defeat enemies; it is a way to reconcile the world and make all human beings one family." "The essence of aikido is the cultivation of ki [a vital force, internal power, mental/spiritual energy]." "The secret of aikido is to become one with the universe." "Aikido is primarily a way to achieve physical and psychological self-mastery." "The body is the concrete unification of the physical and spiritual created by the universe." And so forth.

At the core of almost all philosophical interpretations of aikido, however, we may identify at least two fundamental threads: (1) A commitment to peaceful resolution of conflict whenever possible. (2) A commitment to self-improvement through aikido training.


The History of Boxing


Boxing's origins can be traced all the way back to 688 B.C. in Greece, where it was an event in the Ancient Olympic Games. However, the sport didn't catch on in the United States until the late 1800s. Since that time, however, Americans have dominated the sport, capturing 47 of the 191 gold medals available.

A decade and a half after being recognized in the U.S., boxing first appeared in the Modern Olympics at the 1904 Games in St. Louis, Mo.

In recent years, the sport has reached out to females, who now compete in sanctioned amateur competition but do not yet compete in the Olympics.

Among the now-famous professional boxers who started their careers in the amateur ranks are American gold-medal winners Muhammad Ali, Oscar De La Hoya, George Foreman, Leon and Michael Spinks, Floyd Patterson and Ray Leonard.

Click here to visit the Olympic Boxing Site

The History of Brazilian JiuJitsu


The introduction of jiu-jitsu to Brazil is largely credited to one Mitsuyo Maeda, who immigrated to Brazil in the 1920's and taught jiu-jitsu to Carlos Gracie of Rio de Janeiro (more on the Gracies later). The large number of Japanese immigrants to South America (after all, the president of Peru is of Japanese ancestry) ensured that traditional Japanese martial arts, including ju-jitsu, would find a home in Latin America. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu evolved into its own distinct style, incorporating techniques honed in the rough favelas (shantytowns) of the big cities.

Brazilian jiu-jitsu emphasizes ground fighting -- in fact, most Brazilian jiu-jitsu stylists want to take the fight to the ground, as opposed to the stand-up fighting of other fighting arts. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioners believe that most fights end up on the ground, so you'd might as well learn the most effective ground fighting techniques available.

These techniques include the aptly named guard and mount. While these two techniques seem very simple, they form the foundation for almost all other Brazilian jiu-jitsu techniques.

Brazilian jiu-jitsu really caught on with the advent of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) in 1993. The UFC, promoted by the Helio Gracie clan, was billed as the first tournament to pit practitioners of various martial arts against each other in an almost-no-holds-barred setting. The fact that Helio's son Royce won three of the first four tournaments using his family's brand of jiu-jitsu certainly cemented Brazilian jiu-jitsu as an art demanding serious consideration. After almost 20 tournaments, the UFC has become a huge moneymaker, with cable pay-per-view revenues and fighting personalities rivaling those in professional wrestling.

No description of Brazilian jiu-jitsu is complete without mentioning the Gracie family. Carlos Gracie, after learning jiu-jitsu from Maeda, taught the art to his brothers Osvaldo, Gastão, Jorge, and Helio. The Gracie family, through challenge matches, televised tournaments, and sheer numbers, have spread their namesake style throughout the world. Some say that the Gracie clan is currently undergoing a Hatfield-and-McCoy style family feud, due to the incredible riches spawned by the current popularity of Brazilian jiu-jitsu. But I'll let you look over the links in this article, so you can be the judge.


 Description of Capoiera

Capoeira is an art form that involves movement, music, and elements of practical philosophy. One experiences the essence of capoeira by "playing" a physical game called jogo de capoeira (game of capoeira) or simply jogo. During this ritualized combat, two capoeiristas (players of capoeira) exchange movements of attack and defense in a constant flow while observing rituals and proper manners of the art. Both players attempt to control the space by confusing the opponent with feints and deceptive moves. During the jogo, the capoeiristas explore their strengths and weaknesses, fears and fatigue in a sometimes frustrating, but nevertheless enjoyable, challenging and constant process of personal expression, self-reflection and growth.

The speed and character of the jogo are generally determined by the many different rhythms of the berimbau, a one-string musical bow, which is considered to be the primary symbol of this art form. The berimbau is complemented by the pandeiro (tambourine), atabaque (single-headed standing drum), agog™ (double bell), and reco-reco (grooved segment of bamboo scraped with a stick) to form a unique ensemble of instruments. Inspiring solos and collective singing in a call-and-response dialogue join the hypnotic percussion to complete the musical ambiance for the capoeira session. The session is called roda de capoeira, literally "capoeira wheel," or simply roda. The term roda, refers to the ring of participants that defines the physical space for the two capoeiristas engaged in the ritualized combat.



 History of Choi Kwang-Do


Choi Kwang Do, literally translated is ‘The Art of Grandmaster Kwang Choi’. It is a dynamic, innovative approach to martial arts training that is now recognised by the martial arts press as the fastest growing martial art in the world.

Founded by Grand Master Kwang Jo Choi, 9th Degree Black Belt, Choi Kwang Do is the culmination of Grandmaster Choi’s forty years of training and teaching the martial arts. Choi Kwang Do is based on traditional martial arts philosophy that emphasises the ideal of personal and social development being paramount, rather than sports competition.

The development of good manners, courtesy, self-discipline, and good social adjustment can be considered primary objectives of this art, along with self-defence. The techniques of this art however are very NON traditional. Principles of modern science, derived from psychology, kinesiology, and biomechanics, form the basis for Choi Kwang Do. Conventional martial arts methodology is more often based on mysticism, impractical traditional techniques, or sports competition.

Choi Kwang Do is of Korean origin and derives many of its traditions, customs, as well as terminology from Korea's own heritage. Many of these traditions and customs are based on the wisdom of oriental philosophers such as Lao Tzu, Buddha and Confucius. Aspects such as bowing, demonstration of respect for seniors and elders, loyalty to one's family group or country, emphasis on patience, self discipline, courtesy, and humility, are all examples of traditional oriental philosophy.

These customs, many dating back thousands of years, were originally designed to promote harmony, justice and social order. Interestingly enough, it is these ancient customs that form the modern basis for promoting a safer and more productive learning environment for Choi Kwang Do training. Another important historical influence on Choi Kwang Do's philosophy is the idea of Musado, or "way of the warrior spirit".

This philosophy, emphasising bravery in battle and a never give up attitude, was based on the heroic deeds of an ancient Korean military group called the Hwarang Do (Way of the Flowering Youth). This elite group, comparable to today's special forces, were known for their harsh, self imposed training, which included not only early forms of martial arts training, but also mountain climbing and swimming rivers during the cold of winter. Through such arduous mental and physical training, the Hwarang Do warriors were able to unite the three warring kingdoms of Korea for the first time in its history.

Similar to the chivalry practised by England's knights of the round table, the Hwarang Do had a strict code of honour which has evolved to this day to become the tenets of Choi Kwang Do. These tenets, or aims to achieve, are courtesy, integrity, perseverance, self control, and indomitable spirit. They are fundamental to the development of mental strength which is just as important for today's 'warriors' or martial artists, as it was for their ancient predecessors.

A more recent example of Choi Kwang Do's military heritage is its motto or slogan: Pil Sung (Certain Victory) is a term widely used as a salute by Korea's famous ROK Army. Pil Sung emphasised that no defeat is permanent or all encompassing and that with a positive mental attitude and perseverance, any goal can be achieved.


 History of Chung Moo Doe

Chung (Mind) Moo (Body) Doe (Through practice a way to develop harmony). Many Moo Doe experts have had difficulty researching Asian Moo Doe history because much of history of Moo Doe has been passed down from generation to generation through a closely guarded oral tradition. Only a small percentage of what is known about Moo Doe history has come from any written record.

What some historians have discovered about the history of martial arts is from piecing together facts of events depicted in paintings, in murals, on vases and fans, and a rich oral tradition of folklore as well as evidence from architectural ruins, statues and other art forms. Some Moo Doe practitioners believe that Asian art and sculpture, dating back thousands of years, depicts movements from early Moo Doe history.

Although the details of form and movement may be well guarded, history has shown that the greatest results are in the mental and physical development achieved through Moo Doe practice, and how these results tremendously benefit the lives of individuals. It is the strength of Moo Doe that has made many countries in East Asia the tremendous economic and social powers that they are today.

Even in Western culture, many in business and politics study Mushashi's Book of Five Rings, as a guide to success. Correct Moo Doe practitioners guarded their knowledge as they guarded their honor and name. Choosing the right heir to pass their knowledge to was very important. A good student to a higher Moo Doe practitioner was considered as important as his own life. To leave behind knowledge with the wrong person that could harm others was a disgrace and the same as planting a bad seed that could damage future generations. To leave behind knowledge with the right student was to leave behind a good seed to benefit future generations. This meant the honor and respect of a meaningful life.

Most historians agree that the Bagwa line began sometime during the end of the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 228 AD) or the beginning of the Sui-Tang Dynasty (589 - 907). The form taught by the first generation Grand Master was called "Bagwa" after the honored founder of the Chung Moo line. Other names of this line include Bagwa, Goong Bu, Pal Gye Chung, Yin Yang Doe, and Ship Pal Gae. The 7th generation Grand Master Wang Po taught the Chung Moo line of martial arts under the style Yin Yang Doe.

About the time of the 6th or 7th generation Grand Master, other styles of Asian Moo Doe were incorporated into the original Chung Moo Doe line. Today, about 20% of the Chung Moo line is derived from other styles of Asian martial arts.

Throughout the history of almost all of these martial arts the main forms and movement have remained the same. However, over the years it was common for an individual Master to refine form and movements in some of the styles. It was also common for each Master to select a unique name to differentiate that generation of form and movement from the original style.

Over the centuries, a few main styles may have developed a thousand different names to reflect the history and traditions of the people that taught and practiced the style.


 History of Hapkido


Hapkido is a Korean martial art, which is gaining a huge following as a practical method of self-defense. This is because Hapkido techniques do not require great size or strength to be delivered effectively.

The philosophy, principles, and techniques are often the keys to unlocking hidden wells of strength and confidence that lie deep within us all regardless of age, sex, or muscle mass.

Hapkido history is the subject of some controversy. Some sources say that the founder of Hapkido, Choi, Yong Sul was a houseboy/servant (some even say "the adopted son") of Japanese Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu GrandMaster Takeda, Sokaku. In Japan, Choi used the Japanese name Yoshida, Tatsujutsu since all immigrants to Japan took Japanese names at that time. Choi's Japanese name has also been given as Asao, Yoshida by some sources.

According to this view, Choi studied under Takeda in Japan from 1913, when he was aged 9, until Takeda died in 1943. However, Daito Ryu records do not reflect this, so hard confirmation has not been available. Some claim that Choi's Daito Ryu training was limited to attending seminars. Yong Sool Choi Ueshiba, Morihei, the founder of Aikido, was also a student of Takeda (this is not disputed).

Hapkido and Aikido both have significant similarities to Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu, so it would seem that Hapkido's link to it is real, regardless of how and where Choi was trained. Choi returned to Korea after Takeda's death and began studying Korean arts and teaching Yu Sool or Yawara (other names for jujutsu), eventually calling his kwan ("school") the Hapki Kwan.

Ji, Han Jae is said to be the father of modern hapkido. He began studying under Choi and eventually started his own school, where he taught what he called Hapkido. Along the way, Hapkido adopted various techniques from Tang Soo Do, Tae Kyon, and other Korean kwans (schools). Korean sources may tend to emphasize the Korean arts lineage of Hapkido over the Aikijujutsu lineage, with some even omitting the Aikijujutsu connection. However, as noted above, the connection can be seen in the techniques.

Many people would categorize Hapkido as a "scientific" martial art as every aspect of it is geared towards a single purpose: incapacitating an opponent in the most efficient and thorough manner possible. The best way to achieve this result is through the Theory of Dynamics. The simplest definition of this theory can be found in the translation of the word Hapkido: "The art of coordinating energy."

HAP-coordination, harmony KI-energy DO-art form Dynamic motion means more than just a quick reaction. To react dynamically means more than just a quick reaction. To react dynamically is to create a balance between two opposing forces and use it to your advantage. Um and Yang, or the concept of balance is the cornerstone of Hapkido philosophy.

The key to creating this balance can be found in the three principles of Hapkido. 1) Circle 2) Water 3) Sum While each of these principles is important in their own right, they all stem from the Theory of Circular Motion.

The Theory of Circular motion states that the body must become a dynamic center of motion. Like a spinning top, the body must be in a state of continuous motion in order to maintain balance, however when the top stops spinning it will lose it's balance and tip over. Likewise with the body.

Next is The Theory of Water. The Theory of Water states that all body movements must be fluid like water. This means your techniques must be adaptable. Water in a river will pull a pebble with the current, go around a boulder, or carve a valley through a wall of rock...

Finally is The Theory of Sum, or the idea of using you oppnents own energy against themselves. This theory is nothing more than the sum of the previous two. Continuous and fluid motion make for a most destructive force. A hurricane is a good example of the Theory of Sum. In a hurricane the air spins around absorbing everything and at the same time throwing off everything as long as it's motion is continuous. What can withstand the force of a hurricane? What can withstand the force of a hurricane? Not much.

In Hapkido we take the Theory of Dynamics and combine it with a thorough knowledge of the vital spots of the human body. There are over 400 vulnerable spots on the human body, 54 of which we use as targets of attack. The locations of these vital spots usually coincide with that of the nerves, blood vessels, or internal organs. When these vital spots are attacked the result can be anything from death, to impairment, to severe pain. This knowledge is necessary to a successful attack or defense. Remember! Hapkido is a way of physical and mental coordination. Every movement requires the coordination of both the mind and body, and consistent practice is necessary to maintain this coordination.



 History of Laido


Iaido (ee-eye-doe), a derivative of Japanese Kenjutsu (swordsmanship techniques), is the study of drawing the sword, cutting, and returning it to its scabbard, all with a minimum of exertion. The essence of iaido, a non-combative discipline practiced for an individual's spiritual cultivation, is much different than its forerunner, Iaijutsu. Iaijutsu is also a sword-drawing art practiced with combative applications being stressed during training.

Iaido is practiced today as an aid to self-discipline, improved coordination, and for the sake of posterity. In most styles of iaido the actual cutting techniques are valid, but the practice of iai for defense or war is no longer necessary in modern times. Training to deal with a surprise attack, with a minimum of exertion while defending oneself, however, can easily be seen to be a worthwile pursuit for the sake of day-to-day dealings with others. With iaido the physical and mental benefits are available to all practitioners, regardless of that person's martial arts background, if any.

The style of iaido I was taught is called Mugai-ryu, by the late Soke Shogo Kuniba of the Seishin Kai (Seishin Kai Martial Arts, Inc. in the USA and Seishin Kai Karate Union in Japan). Mugai-ryu was founded in 1695 by Tsuji Getten Sakemochi (1650-1729). Tsuji, the son of a farmer, began his experience with swordsmanship as a disciple of kenjutsu at the age of thirteen. Mugai-ryu was a result of his more than thirty years of constant training.


History of Japanese Sword Arts


The Japanese culture is heavily imbued with the sword. In fact, one of the three objects of posession required to be Emperor is a sword. This Imperial Regalia has been handed down, generation after generation, to the ruler of Japan; the Jewel, the Mirror, and the Sword. The Imperial Regalia is held in the Shinto shrine at Ise, near the traditional home of the Imperial family Nara. The ancient legend of the Shinto that tells of the origin of the islands themselves refers to a bladed weapon which was dipped into the sea and the drops of water off of the tip became the islands of Japan. One cynic characterized the history of Japan as too many people fighting over too little land. The sword and its use was shaped by the history of the land and its people.

Japanese legend says that the gifted sword maker Amakuni was the one to develop the classically styled Japanese sword. Long, single edged and curved with a two handed grip. Amakuni is thought to have lived in about 720 AD. Prior to this time, the swords were developed from copies of Chinese and Korean designs. Straight, single or double edged, and usually two handed grips. Two things happened with the advent of the Japanese style. First, the blade became a very effective cutting weapon, even against armor. And two, its deployment changed which allowed the rise of a distinct style of Japanese Swordsmanship. About this time, the Imperial family moved the center of government from Nara to Kyoto, where it would remain for nearly a thousand years.

In order to cultivate and improve the sword, as a weapon and as an art form, two conditions were required. First, there had to be sufficient stability that swordsmiths could practice their trade with little disruption. Second, there must have existed sufficient unrest that development was required. For the first 500 years of the Japanese sword, both of these conditions existed. Most of the legendary battles of Japanese folklore occured in this time period.

At first, the battles were fought between the race we call the Japanese now, and the indigenous peoples, called the Ainu or Emishi. A hardy race related to the Lapps and the Eskimos, they were loathe to release their traditional lands to the newcomers. The battles were furious, and the leader of the Emperor's army was called the Taishogun, later shortened to Shogun, the ultimate military ruler of Japan. By the late 800s, they had been pushed back from the three large arable plains which constitute the bulk of Japanese food production and wealth.

Later, the Gempei War between the Taira and the Miyamoto clans, typified the wars between clans struggling for supremacy. The Miyamoto eventually won, laying claim to the title Shogun on their leader; after which the Emperor declared that only Miyamoto decendants could lay claim to the title. The zenith of the Japanese sword is usually considered to be the early 1300s; smiths such as Muramasa and Masamune being names commonly heard. Many consider Masamune's work to have been unsurpassed at any time, before or since.

After that time, civil unrest outstripped the ability of smiths to supply the demand. Quality dropped as more utilitarian quantities of blades were required. The years from the middle 1300s to 1600 were a very dark time for Japan. These were the years where the Imperial Court was divided into two, the Ashikaga Shogunate ran the country into disarray, and the "Hundred Years War." The Ashikaga also moved the center of the military government from its traditional place in Kyoto to their home in Kamakura.

At the end of the 16th century, three great generals arose, each in succession, and all unified the country under one leadership; Oda Nobunaga, Hideyoshi Toyotomi, and Ieyesu Tokugawa. When Tokugawa overthrew his last upstart rival in the battle of Sekigahara in September 1600, he unified the country under a government for the first time in 800 years. Because Ieyesu could claim Miyamoto blood, he also claimed the title of Shogun for himself and his heirs. His home was near Kamakura, and so he moved the center of government to Edo, today called Tokyo.

For the next 268 years, the Tokugawa Shogunate ruled the land in peace. And with peace came the decline in the practice of the sword. however, small groups of traditionalists refused to give up the old ways. The writings of these reclusive kenshi are still quoted today as examples of great swordsmen. Miyamoto Musashi, Tsunemoto Yamamoto, and zzz are still regarded as kensai (sword saints) in Japanese folklore. With the great peace, came the unemployed warrior or ronin (literally "wave man"). The Tokugawa tried to convert warriors into bureaucrats, to run the government. The Tokugawa may have ruled in peace, but they held an iron fist to do so. Part of their way to control the flow of Japanese society was to establish a caste system. There were four classes of people in descending order, samurai (royalty), farmers, artisans, and merchants. Those who traditionally were farmer warriors could no longer posess swords, only the samurai could wear the official badge of office, the sword. The Tokugawa also closed the shores of Japan to the outside world, executing all trespassers and only allowing a single small island near Kagoshima in the south to be visited once a year by Portugese traders.

This helped and hurt the sword, as the Japanese had been introduced to matchlocks by the Portugese in 1543. But with the closed borders, small enclaves still held the sword as the weapon of choice for duty, honor and Emperor; along side the bow and arrow. The saying, "kyu ba no michi" is usually translated as "the way of the warrior", but is literally "the way of the bow and the horse." In general, the sword and its practice continued to decline during this time in a gradual manner.

In 1854, American ships entered Tokyo Bay and demanded that Japan open trading with the west. the technology that the west had compared to the Japanese was quite considerable. Had America forced the issue, it would have easily destroyed Japan. Instead, Japan turned itself inside out culturally and technologically. The Tokugawa were terrified of the technological prowess the Americans displayed. Fortunately, the Americans had troubles at home and soon forgot the Japanese.

But the Tokugawa were being pressured by internal forces to overturn their rule. The only way the Tokugawa could see to preserve any measure of limited control was to return power to the Emperor. And so in 1868, the Tokugawa stepped down, returning power to the Emperor Meiji, beginning the Meiji Reformation. Japan had entered the industrial revolution.

The samurai were officially disbanded by the Emperor Meiji. Later, they were stripped of the official badge of office, the wearing of the two swords in 1877. This gave rise to the last great battle of the swaor, the Satsuma Rebellion in December 1877 through January 1878. The Satsuma refused to obey and fought the conscript government army (with modern weapons) at Kagoshima in the south. The samurai were killed to a man, and their martyrdom has become a poignant symbol of the swordsman.

The modern period of the sword has been charaterized by even greater decline. Samurai were forced to give exhibitions in order to try to earn money. more and more of them left the art behind, to learn new trades and skills with which they could live. Smiths began to fashion scissors and other metal implements. the old ways were fading away into history very fast, except amongst a small dedicated following...



History of Jeet Kune Do


Over the years, many people have made claims regarding the proper definition of Bruce Lee's art. Some have defined it as a process of "change;" others have labeled it as simply "modified Wing Chun;" others, with the best of intentions have stated that it is simply an eclectic jumble of various styles and arts that hopefully will, at some unspecified point in the future, gestalt into something meaningful for the individual practitioner.

With the formation of Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do, however, there no longer exists any need for such contradictory and confusing definitions. There is but one definition for Jun fan Jeet Kune Do and here it is:

Jun fan Jeet Kune Do is the complete body of technical (physical and scientific) and philosophical (mental, social, spiritual) knowledge that was studied and taught by Bruce Lee during his lifetime.

In other words, Jun fan Jeet Kune Do (with, as its core, the combative principles, physical techniques, training methods, and philosophical ideas synthesized by Bruce Lee during his lifetime) is concerned solely and exclusively with Bruce Lee's personal evolution and process of self-discovery through martial art as indicated and supported by the written record (Bruce Lee's personal papers and library) and oral history (recollections of those who spent time with and/or studied under Bruce Lee). That's it. Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do concerns itself with presenting Bruce Lee's ideas and opinions - and not anyone else's interpretation of them - with regard to:

  • The history and development of his art

  • The philosophy that supports and extends from the art

  • The training and conditioning methods necessary to realize the physical (and mental/spiritual) aspects of the art

  • The scientific principles underlying the foundation of the techniques Bruce Lee emphasized and held to be significant

  • The life, art and career of Bruce Lee

A distinction is made between this body of work (i.e., Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do) and an individual student's own personal process of self-discovery through martial art, in that each student is free to utilize all, some or none of Bruce Lee's teachings to assist him in this respect.

Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do is not about setting up restrictions or "Ways" of doing things. It has no interest in trying to mold or shape you. It accepts you as you are. Much like when a bubbling spring flows out from the mountains, it is simply there for a thirsty traveler should he wish to partake of it. When a bird sings, it does not sing for the advancement of music, but if somebody stops to listen and is delighted, that is fine. And Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do seeks likewise to be a source of inspiration and delight solely for those who posses an interest in Bruce Lee and the martial viewpoint that he created. Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do should be considered the base that Bruce Lee established and not the ultimate goal of the individual who studies it. Individuals may, and if fact are expected to, modify, add and delete until they have transcended the need for any "way" or "system" at all - including Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do. We should welcome change, but the person changing should claim responsibility for his own innovations. Nor should Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do be called obsolete after a martial artist evokes these changes into a personal interpretation. In holding true to Bruce Lee's philosophy of personal liberation, it works on the principle of a physician rather than a patent. A physician is always trying to get rid of his patients and send them away healthy enough to stand on their own two feet. Bruce Lee's ultimate objective as a teacher was to get rid of his students so that they wouldn't need him or any other teacher.

Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do can be viewed as a guide to reach the highest peak of personal liberation through the study of martial arts. You, the individual become, through this process of self-discovery, your own best teacher. What we really need to know about ourselves and how we perform throughout our daily life should not end when graduating from school. Throughout our Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do journey, the martial arts trials and tribulations we experience result in a never-ending gain in self-knowledge and growth.

While it is true that Bruce Lee was constantly searching for a better way ("To utilize all ways be bound by none"), we must, for historical and philosophical reasons, use the term Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do only for the art that Bruce Lee taught. While it is true that he would have continued to grow and explore, we cannot know with infallible certainty what direction this exploration would have taken. Our objective with Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do is simply to remove some of the misconceptions that have arisen over the years concerning what Bruce Lee and his art were about, and to show the world a better picture of what is preserved in his legacy. For the sake of the future of Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do, we must also emphasize that when instructors claim to teach Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do, they will only teach from the body of knowledge attributed to Bruce Lee.

Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do is concerned solely with Bruce Lee's body of work - as he taught it - and with the preservation and perpetuation of this body of work.



 History of Ju Jitsu


Jujitsu (literally ``the gentle fighting art'') is an empty handed extension of the sword fighting art of the Japanese Samuarai.

The actual ancient art is called Aiki Jujitsu. This involves joint locks, throws, strikes, blocks, and chokes. Aiki Jujitsu went through some changes in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Jigoro Kano removed many of the dangerous techniques to create Judo (``the gentle way''). This allowed students to practice full speed against resisting opponents, but with far fewer injuries that happened when Jujitsu was practiced at full speed.

About the same time, Morehei Uyeshiba took a different set of techniques out to create Aikido. (A jitsu is a fighting style. A do is a way.) About the same time, a Korean named Yong Suhl Choi combined Jujitsu techniques with the kicks and punches so prevalent in Korean martial arts to create Hapkido. (Hapkido is the Korean pronunciation of the Kanji that in Japanese is pronounced Aikido.)


 History of Judo


Judo was founded by Dr. Jigro Kano in 1882. He developed Judo from Jujitsu.

Why did Dr. Jigro Kano develop this new Martial Art? Students were often getting injured while practicing many of the techniques used in Jujitsu. He wanted to form a martial art that was a little more gentle (Ju). He took out all the Jujitsu techniques that were dangerous when practiced and kept all of the techniques that were less harmful when attempted.

The techniques (Waza) Dr. Kano kept for his new form were throwing(Nage), grappling (Katame) and Atemi(Striking). This new form of martial arts he called Judo. Ju meaning gentleness or giving way, and Do meaning way of life.

Dr. Kano also developed Judo as a way to teach and develop physical education. From my limited study of Judo I believe Dr. Kano regarded physical education not only as means to develop the body but the mind also.

In Judo he sought to create something to stimulate the mind and the body to work together or in harmony with one another. To accomplish this he used Randori(free practice) and Kata(form practice) as primary teaching methods. Later Shiai(tournament or contest judo) was used as a another learning and/or teaching tool.


 History of Karate 


Karate-do is a martial art originated in Okinawa, modified and transformed into a way of life by Master Gichin Funakoshi. Until before these modifications, it was just a group of techniques that permitted self-defense without weapons other than your hands and feet. Though there was some Chinese influence, the development was Okinawan, and later mainland Japanese. Master Funakoshi, inspired by traditional martial arts from the main Japanese islands (kyudo, kendo, judo for example) modified Karate, that until that moment could have been called Karate-jutsu, a fighting art, and emphasized the philosophical aspects. This way all that was learnt could be extrapolated to the daily life of the student. This is why Karate is a way of life: Karate-do (do, means way or road). Gichin Funakoshi, thus, combined Karate techniques with traditional Budo (the martial way), inserting the essence of Budo in the heart of Karate.

The word Karate is also formed by two characters, the first one kara (empty) and the other te (hand), the first one having many ways of defining it. The first definition is the least subtle and the most straightforward, through the practice of karate, self defense techniques are learnt, where no weapons are needed, other than hands, feet or other parts of the body. The second one, and in the words of Master Funakoshi: "Just as it is the clear mirror that reflects without distortion, or the quiet valley that echoes a sound, so must one who would study Karate-do purge himself of selfish and evil thoughts, for only with a clear mind and conscience can he [she] understand that which he [she] receives. This is another meaning of the element kara in Karate-do." Another meaning given by the Master is that of always striving to be inwardly humble and outwardly gentle, thus meaning an internal emptiness of egoism and acting gently and moderately. Finally he talks about the elemental form of the Universe, which is emptiness (kara, ku), "and thus, emptiness is form itself. The kara of Karate-do has this meaning." After what's been said, it is clear that Karate-do and Karate Budo are much, much more than mere self-defense techniques, actually, such a definition is a far shot from the real essence of Karate as a philosophy, which strives to develop the inner qualities of a human being and the search of perfection of your character, through strenuous training in the do and budo martial arts.


 History of Kendo


Kendo is a Japanese style of fencing derived during the Meiji period in Japan (1868-1912), from the two-handed sword fighting techniques of the samurai. Today kendo, which means "way of the sword", is practiced with shinai (bamboo swords), and fighters wear protective equipment covering the target areas: the head, wrists, and abdomen. The bogu (protective gear) consists of a men (face mask), a do (breastplate), kote (fencing gloves), and the tare, a kind of apron to protect the stomach and hips. Under the protective gear, kendoka (students of kendo) wear a hakama, or wide split skirt, reaching the ankles.

The weapon used in Kendo is the shinai, or bamboo sword. The shinai is approximately four feet in length and is made of four carefully formed bamboo slats bound together to form hollow cylinder. A cord runs along the length of the shinai. To make a valid cut a player must strike his opponent with the side opposite the cord. In addition the point must be struck with the top third of the shinai.


 History of Kickboxing


Kickboxing started in the US during the 1970's when American karate practitioners became frustrated with strict controls on martial arts competitions that didn't allow full contact kicks and punches. Many questions were raised when the sport began about the high risk of injury. As a result, safety rules were improved and protective clothing was added. As this is a relatively new sport there are no long-term traditions. The sport has undergone changes and been refined during the last two decades. Competitors use sparring, kicks, punches, kick blocks, shadow boxing, and wood breaking that is learned and applied under professional instruction.


 History of Krav Maga


Krav Maga first appeared approx. 40 years ago, making it one of the most modern self defense methods. It was created for use by the Isreali Defense forces. The IDF needed to teach self defense to a variety of people with varying abilities in a very short amount of time.

Krav Maga was integrated into army training by Imi Lichenfield, a career IDF officer and chief instructor at the armys physical training facility at Wingate Institute. Imi is still active involved in the Krav Maga Association and maintains the role of president.

Through the years, the system came to be used not only by the IDF but also by Isreali's security forces, the Mosad and the police. This system is computer tested, reexamined and adjusted on an ongoing basis. Krav Maga focuses on building readiness, physical fitness and confidence. Krav Maga is taught in many public schools in Isreal.



 History of Kuk Sool Won


The history of Korean martial arts is as old as the history of Korea and can be traced as far back as to the prehistoric Korea, where primitive weapons made of wood and stone were used for hunting and fighting. As early as 2707 BC, the Korean warlord Chi-Woo also known as Jaoji, reigned as the "god of war" in what is now mainland China. Since the majority of Koreans migrated and settled in the Korean Peninsula, there have been more than a thousand recorded instances of foreign invasions. Consequently, the Koreans have developed unique martial arts and military strategies in order to defend themselves. Most of these Korean martial arts fall into three branches; namely, tribal, Buddhist, and royal court martial arts. The development of each of the three branches of martial arts is briefly described below.

Tribal martial arts ( SahDoh MuSool )
The earliest martial arts developed in Korea are called SahDoh MuSool; tribal, clan or family martial arts. SahDoh MuSool was popular among the ancient Korean tribes, city-states and kingdoms formed in the Korean Peninsula and parts of what is now China. This was well before the first unified Korean kingdom of Ko-Cho Sun was founded in 2333 BC by the legendary king, DahnGoon WahngGuhm. SahDoh MuSool was mainly passed down from one generation to the next by family lines. Later, SahDoh MuSool has been further developed and made widespread by militias voluntarily formed by the common people who often fought in battles to defend their villages. Popular traditional sports activities such as Taekkyon, and Ssireum are considered to have originated from SahDoh MuSool. Many techniques found in the popular Olympic sport of TaeKwonDo can also be traced back to SahDoh MuSool.

Buddhist martial arts ( BoolKyo MuSool )
Since Buddhism was first introduced to the kingdom of Koguryo in the year 347, unique martial arts have been developed by both Buddhist monks and martial artists, known as BoolKyo MuSool. Buddhist monks developed and practiced BoolKyo MuSool to improve their health while meditating and defend themselves while traveling. As a result, Buddhist martial arts include internal training with emphasis on special breathing and meditation methods, as well as external training with emphasis on effective self-defense techniques. Many Buddhist monks were so accomplished as martial artists that they were occasionally called upon during national emergencies to fight in battles by forming unprecedented armies of warrior monks. To this day, BoolKyo MuSool plays a significantl role for Korean martial artists by providing them with philosophies of non-violence and compassion as well as spiritual codes of conduct such as the famous Five Commandments of the HwaRang warriors.

Royal court martial arts ( KoongJoong MuSool )
Kings, royal families and government offcials had private armies and bodyguards who practiced martial arts known as KoongJoong MuSool. These royal court martial arts gave rise to esoteric techniques of portable weapons such as fans and short swords. Also developed were unique empty-handed techniques of joint-locking and pressure point striking. Existing records in Japan suggest that many KoongJoong MuSool techniques found their way to Japan and gave birth to the Japanese art of Jujitsu. King JinHung of the Kingdom of Shilla encouraged the HwaRang warriors to practice KoongJoong MuSool and other martial arts. During the Koryo Dynasty and Chosun Dynasty, Korean kings enforced policies to discourage practice of martial arts and forbid possession of weapons, in order to protect themselves from any rebellion against them. However, Korean martial arts have continued to develop both within and without royal courts thanks to the efforts to practice, record and compile martial arts techniques by many dedicated Korean martial artists.

Traditional Korean martial arts ( Kuk Sool )
The three branches of traditional Korean martial arts of SahDoh MuSool, BoolKyo MuSool, and KoongJoong MuSool are systemized as Kuk Sool in 1958 by Grandmaster In Hyuk Suh, the founder of Kuk Sool Won. Kuk Sool consists of 270 categories and more than 3600 techniques from the three branches of traditional Korean martial arts. Kuk Sool has been actively promoted worldwide by the World Kuk Sool Association, and recognized in the martial arts community as one of the most effective and comprehensive systems of traditional Korean martial arts.



 History of Kung Fu


The History of China is the history of its Kung Fu. Through most of its turbulent past, China has been a nation beset by invaders and internal strife. In Cantonese the word China is jung gok and means middle or central country. A vast land mass, much desired by invaders from other lands, China has had to develop martial arts as a way of life.

As far as birth of Kung fu is concerned there are two main theories behind it. One stream believes that Kung fu was already in existence long before Bodhidharma, the great Buddhist monk arrived in China. His main contribution was the introduction of Chan(zen) into the Sil Lum Temple. And the large number of people believes that the great Buddhist monk Bodhidharma is a founder of Kung fu. Throughout history credit has been given to Bodhidharma as a creator of  Sil Lum Kung fu  or the man responsible of introducing the martial arts to China.

It all began, so the legends say, when a stern Indian monk noticed that his young Chinese disciples couldn't stay awake during the long and tiring meditation of the new religion known as Chan or Zen Buddhism, he was trying to teach them. Not conditioned to endure the exhaustive meditative methods developed by the Hindu, Yogic and Buddhist monks of their Master's homeland, the young disciples seemed on the verge of failure in their new undertaking. Realizing this the first patriarch Bodhidharma took the initiative and introduced his frail disciples to an 18 movement exercise based on techniques discovered and developed beyond the Himalayas. Soon daily practice of the 18 movements strengthened the young disciples at the Sil Lum Temple enough to receive their Master's teachings thus sowing two seeds that would later known as chan (Zen Buddhism) and Sil Lum Kung fu .

Three hundred years before Christ, China was in its age of chivalry. Only the nobility participated in  warfare, using the symbol of medieval chivalry, the chariot. These chariots were drawn by four horses, harnessed with a multitude of small musical bells. Three men rode in each chariot, a driver, an archer, and  a man proficient with the lance. The lance was like a spear, but with the addition of a hook used for snaring the enemy Behind the chariots were standard bearers carrying standards depicting the symbolic animal of each direction - the red bird of south, the black tortoise of the north, the white tiger of the west, the green dragon representing the east. This was honorable warfare. Warriors from opposing armies would often drink together before a battle.

Then came the period of the "Warring States" (300 B.C.). During the era, Chivalry gave way to warfare carried on by adventures or knight-errands. They were literally soldiers of fortune. The chariot was replaced by mounted archers, cavalry and an abundance of foot soldiers. Many of the lone adventurers became famous as ascorts for the nobility and rich travelling through the countryside. Because there was violence everywhere, these escorts had to be good fighters. Martial arts among the civilian population of China began to gain importance.

In 246 B.C., the first emperor of the Ch'in dynasty came to power. He assumed the name , Ch'in Shih-huang-ti or "first emperor of the Ch'in" known to the history as Chinese Caesar. He was  able to do what none before had accomplished, unite China into complete Empire. He ruled China with an iron hand, enslaving multitudes to build the Great Wall of China, and burning all books which might conflict with his rigid rule. He also prohibited the practice of martial arts and carrying of weapons by civilians.

It was the next emperor, an adventurer named Liu Pang, who turned China back to the study of martial arts. He was originally an escort, a freelance martial artist. One day while escorting the band of prisoners to jail, Liu Pang decided to free them and become their leader. He led his rapidly growing army of ruffians throughout China and soon assumed the throne, from soldier of fortune to emperor. He became the first emperor of the Han dynasty, destined to rule China for four centuries. (202 B.C. - 220 A.D.)

It was Liu Pang who said " It was while dressed in rough cloth and wielding a three-foot sword that I conquered the empire!" He was truly a soldier's king and from his influence, martial arts flourished throughout the Han dynasty.
During the Ching Dynasty (A.D. 1644 - 1911), protection from government forces reached a peak when revolutionary martial artists were engaged in rebellious activities while headquartered in the safety of the Shaolin temple, kung fu systems like choy-li-fut, hung gar and white eyebrow grew from such origins. In retaliation, the Manchurian government of the Ching dynasty burned the Shaolin temple, forcing the rebels to go into hiding and to form secret societies.

Martial arts spread throughout China during the Republic (A.D. 1912 - 1948). Military tactics were taught in all schools and fighting arts became very popular in China.

There is one thing that all Chinese martial arts have in common; the idea that kung fu itself is merely skill. Of course, it's a skill that requires serious and diligent training to perfect, but it is just a skill that anyone can learn. The literal translation of kung fu is "a skill or knowledge of something physical". The real value of Chinese martial arts goes beyond self defense alone. It lies within the strong traditional training that all kung fu systems emphasize: training that teaches the kung fu student to respect his teacher and his teacher's advice; to be respectful towards other kung fu styles, because they are part of China's legacy; and perhaps most important, to only use his kung fu skill in a morally correct manner.



 History of Muay Thai


Most of what is known about the early history of Thai Boxers comes from Burmese accounts of warfare between Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) and Thailand during the 15th and 16th centuries. The earliest reference (1411 AD) mentions a ferocious style of unarmed combat that decided the fate of the Thai kings. A later description tells how Nai Khanom Tom, Thailand's first famous boxer and a prisoner of war in Myanmar, gained his freedom by roundly defeating a dozen Burmese warriors before a Burmese court. To this day, many martial art aficionados consider the Thai style the ultimate in hand to hand fighting. Hong Kong, China, Singapore, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, USA, Germany and France have all sent their best and none of the challengers have been able to defeat top-ranked Thai Boxers. On one famous occasion, Hong Kong's top five Kung Fu masters were dispatched in less than 6 and a half minutes cumulative total, all knockouts. (note: the previous statement can be disputed at present. A check of recent history would show many USA fighters have beaten Thai fighters in title fights at Bangkok's Lumpinee Stadium. At the recent annual King's Cup 2000 in Thailand, several USA fighters from San Francisco's Fairtex Muay Thai gym beat Thai fighters. Also of note, many of the current Muay Thai world champions are not Thai fighters, e.g., Alex Gong, Jean Claude Leuyer, and George Tsutsui.)

King Naresuan the Great (1555-1605) was a great Thai boxer himself, and he made Muay Thai a required part of military training for all Thai soldiers. Later another Thai king, Phra Chao Seua ( the 'tiger king), further promoted Thai Boxing as a national sport by encouraging prize fights and the development of training camps in the early 18th century. These are accounts of massive wagers and bouts to the death during this time. Phra Chao Seua himself is said to have been an incognito participant in many of the matches during the early part of his reign. Contestants fists were wrapped in thick horsehide for maximum impact with minimum knuckle damage. They also used cotton soaked in glue and ground glass and later hemp bindings. Tree bark and seashells were used to protect the groin from lethal kicks.


 History of Ninjutsu


The History of Ninjutsu Ninjutsu began more than 800 years ago among the ninja people living in Japan. The warrior class which ruled Japan at the time were called the Samurai. They controlled the land and it's people. Their lord, the Shogun, was the only person the Samurai was answerable to. The ordinary peasant served the warriors every whim. A peasant could never strike a Samurai. If he did, it would mean his life.

The ninja would not serve the Samurai, and fled to the barren, cold, mountainous regions of Iga and Koga. There they trained in the arts of war. It is said that their art is based upon a great Chinese military text written by a general named Sun Tzu, The Art of War.

Over the centuries the ninja (word meaning 'stealers-in') trained from the cradle to the grave in every known martial art. Their forte was espionage and assassination, by any means possible. But their training also taught them to reach spiritual heights, by pushing their bodies and minds to limits far beyond that of normal human endurance.

Training for a ninja began almost as soon as he could walk. Childhood games were designed to inculcate expertise in unarmed combat, swordwork, weaponry, camouflage, escape and evasion. In time, the ninja warriors came to be feared throughout Japan. Even the mighty Samaurai looked over his shoulder if a ninja was known to be in the area.

Over the centuries, while ninjutsu was being practiced in secrecy, no one knew anything about the art except the ninjas themselves. When Japan emerged into the modern era, and feudalism collapsed, the ninja were absorbed into Japan's secret service and special services groups.

The martial arts boom of the 1970's saw two men searching for something different. Doron Navon and Stephen Hayes found a ninjutsu headmaster living in Japan who came from an unbroken line of ninja instructors dating back almost 800 years. The art was then brought to the western World.

When speaking of Ninja, the image of a black clad assassin disappearing in a cloud of smoke is what comes to mind. This distortion has nothing to do with the reality of studying Ninjutsu, or "Ninpo" in its highest order. Ninpo is a traditional Japanese bujutsu martial art with a rich and viable history that stretches back over ten centuries.

Developed as a highly illegal counterculture to the ruling samurai warrior class, Ninpo still flourishes today under the direct guidance of Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi,34th grandmaster of the Togakure Ryu Ninjutsu tradition and eight other budo traditions. Dr. Hatsumi is the last variable true Ninja grandmaster having a direct line of decent from feudal Japan.

History of Shorinji Kempo


Shorinji Kempo refers to the Japanese martial art formed by So Doshin in 1947. So Doshin based this martial art on the techniques he had learnt in his 17 years working in China as a special agent for the Japanese government during WWII. This work had brought him into contact with numerous Chinese secret societies, from which he learnt various Chinese fighting arts. "Shorinji Kempo" is the Japanese reading for the Chinese characters "Shaolin Ji Chuan-fa", or fist-method of the Shaolin Temple, and does not refer to the Chinese martial art known commonly as Shaolin Kung Fu in the West - this is referred to as "Shorin Ken", or Shaolin Fist, in Japanese.

So Doshin chose the name Shorinji Kempo because he based his techniques on those of the Shaolin arts, as well as others, nowhere does he or any official of Shorinji Kempo claim that he created this techniques himself. He acknowledges the source of these techniques. Furthermore, in creating Shorinji Kempo he hoped to carry on the tradition of the Shaolin Temple in creating an art which trained both mind and body. In Shorinji Kempo he hoped to combine the spirit of the training method of the Indian monk Bodhidharma (Tamo in China and Daruma in Japan), which cultivates both mind and body, and the teachings of Buddha which emphasize self-reliance.

Doshin's dream was to cultivate in the youth of Japan compassion, cooperation, and the determination to stand up for justice, and thus contribute in rebuilding Japan from the ashes of World War II to a country that was stronger, spiritually and not militarily. This dream is carried on by Kenshi (trainees in Shorinji Kempo) throughout Japan, and in countries all over the world.


       History of Silat


There are three main associations that uses Silat Gayong as their curriculum. They are all led by Dato' Meor's closest followers who wear the sixth degree black belt, the highest a student could attain. The biggest is Pertubuhan Silat Seni Gayong Malaysia (PSSGM) which is led by the grandmaster's daughter Cikgu Kalsom. Others are Pertubuhan Seni Silat Pusaka Gayong Malaysia (PSSPGM) which is led by Cikgu Majid Mat Isa, Silat Seni Gayong Pasak Singapura (SSGPS) by Cikgu Hussain Kaslan and Pertubuhan Silat Seni Gayong Warisan Serantau Malaysia (PSSGWSM) by Cikgu Mat Nanyan. Other associations that teach Silat Gayong as brought by Dato' Meor are PERWANIT in Singapore and Gayong Amerika (colaboration of PSSGM and PSSPGM).

The governing body of PSSGM (crest at the banner) is headed by Cikgu Mohd Razali Mohd Salleh, the chairman. Initially registered in 1962, it is probably the oldest silat association in Malaysia. Each state has its own branch in which they govern their own curriculum as outlined by the central headquarters. Hence to obtain a white belt in Selangor is not the same as obtaining one in Johor due to the specialization of certain masters in those regions. For instance PSSGM Selangor once invited a master from Pahang to give a javelin seminar since he was the renown expert.

PSSPGM, also known as Gayong Pusaka, was founded following the sacking of Cikgu Majid as the chief instructor of PSSGM in 1978. It recognizes Dato' Meor as the grandmaster although all activities are self-regulated. Gayong Pusaka has an almost identical belt system to PSSGM's but the curriculum for each belt is different. They are famed for producing world champions in silat seni tournaments such as Jebat, Zulkarnain and Mat.


In Singapore SSGPS is the main body that regulates the study of Silat Gayong. Cikgu Hussain Kaslan, the chief instructor, was one of the earliest student of Dato' Meor when Silat Gayong was first being introduced in Singapore. Some of the masters in PSSGM even went for their black belt grading with SSGPS.


Another breakaway from PSSGM is Pertubuhan Silat Seni Gayong Warisan Serantau Malaysia (PSSGWSM). Is was established in 1992 and currently being led by Cikgu Mat Nanyan. PSSWSM has its headquarters in Alor Setar and active mostly in the northern states. The main training center is in Kampung Kepayang, Ipoh.

Although there are three major associations, there is no animosity between them today. The split between PSSGM and PSSGPM was an old grudge and many are trying to reunite them both. An example of a successful merge was the Gayong Amerika which sees both associations gang up together to bring Silat Gayong into the western world. May the near future bring more enlightening news of reuniting Gayong.


 History of Sumo


Originally known as "sumai", meaning struggle, sumo began around 20 B.C. as military combat. Sumai used most of the modern sumo techniques, plus a variety of strikes. . It resembled other wrestling based arts such as mongolian wrestling and Indian wrestling. Before the 16th century almost all wrestling was practiced for battle. Evolving after the 16th century, it eventually became known as sumo. Rules, ranks, and a ring now make sumo into a sport of giants. The water ceremony, the bowing, the costumes, and pagentry are all reminders of the ancient military traditions are still recognized today in competition. To follow a competition is quite easy. The winner is the one who forces his opponent out of the ring or forcing his opponent to touch the floor with any body part above the knee, first. The techniques they employ range from slapping (tsuppari), sweeps (ketaguri), and a wide variety of sacrafice throws (utchari).


History of Tae Kwon Do


The earliest records of Martial Arts practice in Korea date back to about 50 B.C. These earliest forms are known as 'Taek Kyon'. Evidence that Martial Arts were being practiced at that time can be found in tombs where wall-paintings show two men in fighting-stance. Others reject this evidence and say that these men could be dancing as well.

Back then, time there were three kingdoms:

Koguryo (37 B.C. - 668 A.D.)

Paekje (18 B.C. - 600 A.D.)

Silla (57 B.C. - 936 A.D.)

Silla unified the kingdoms after winning the war against Paekje in 668 A.D. and Koguryo in 670 A.D. The Hwa Rang Do played an important role at this unification. The Hwa Rang Do was an elite group of young noble men, devoted to cultivating mind and body and serve the kingdom Silla. The best translation for HwaRang is "flowering youth" (Hwa ="flower", Rang="young man"). The HwaRang Do had an honor-code and practiced various forms of martial arts, including Taekyon and Soo Bakh Do. The old honor-code of the HwaRang is the philosophical background of modern Taekwondo.

What followed was a time of peace and the HwaRang turned from a military organization to a group specialized in poetry and music. It was in 936 A.D. when Wang Kon founded the Koryo dynasty, an abbreviation of Koguryo. The name Korea is derived from the name Koryo.

During the Koryo Dynasty the sport Soo Bakh Do, which was then used as a military training method, became popular. During the Yi-dynasty (1392 A.D. - 1910 A.D.) this emphasis on military training disappeared. King Taejo, founder of the Yi-dynasty, replaced Buddhism by Confucianism as the state religion. According to Confucianism, the higher class should read poets and play music. Martial arts was something for the common, or even inferior, man.

Modern-day Taekwondo is influenced by many other Martial Arts. The most important of these arts is Japanese Karate. This is because Japan dominated Korea during 1910 until the end of World War II. During WWII, lots of Korean soldiers were trained in Japan. During this occupation of Korea, the Japanese tried to erase all of the Korean culture, including the martial arts. The influence that Japan has given to Taekwondo are the quick, straightline movements, that characterize the various Japanese systems.

After World War II, when Korea became independant, several kwans arose. These kwans were: "Chung Do Kwan", "Moo Duk Kwan", "Yun Moo Kwan", "Chang Moo Kwan", "Oh Do Kwan", "Ji Do Kwan", "Chi Do Kwan" and "Song Moo Kwan". The Kwans united in 1955 as Tae Soo Do. In the beginning of 1957, the name Taekwondo was adopted by several Korean martial arts masters, for its similarity to the name Tae Kyon.

General Choi Hong-hi required the army to train Taekwondo, so the very first Taekwondo students were Korean soldiers. The police and air force had to train Taekwondo as well. At that time, Taekwondo was merely a Korean version of Shotokan Karate. In 1961 the Korean Taekwondo Union arose from the Soo Bakh Do Association and the Tae Soo Do Association. In 1962 the Korean Amateur Sports Association acknowledged the Korean Taekwondo Union and in 1965 the name is set to Korean Taekwondo Association (K.T.A.). General Choi was president of the K.T.A. at that time and was asked to start the I.T.F. as the international branch of the K.T.A. The southern government was overthrown in 1961. General Choi Hong-hi left for America and established I.T.F. (International Taekwondo Federation) Taekwondo, as a separate entity, two years later.

Demonstrations were given all over the world. It took a while before real progress was made, but eventually, in 1973, the World Taekwondo Federation (W.T.F.) was founded. In 1980, W.T.F. Taekwondo was recognized by the International Olympic Comite (I.O.C.) and became a demonstration sport at the Olympics in 1988. There were several attempts to unify I.T.F. and W.T.F. Taekwondo, but unfortunately, these failed. In the year 2000 W.T.F. Taekwondo goes Olympic.







 Practicing at a Temple in Vietnam Shaolin kungfu self-defense

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